Calcium Supplements for Horses - Mineral Nutrition 101
Calcium supplements can be integral to a horse's health and diet. Over 99% of a horse's body is found in the bones and teeth. This can impact everything from blood flow to their ability to properly chew food. Join us as we take a deep dive on the importance of calcium and overall mineral nutrition.
What are Minerals?
Minerals are inorganic substances that are needed by the horse. Minerals play important roles in the acid-base balance, formation of bones, teeth and other structural components, are co-factors to aid in enzyme function and for normal metabolic and biological activity. Unlike vitamins, minerals cannot be created by the horse; thus, they need to be supplied in the diet. The Nutrient Requirements of Horses (2007) lists requirements for 14 individual minerals. Fortunately, most common feeds (hay/pasture/whole grains) contain a variety of important minerals.
The mineral content of these feeds varies depending on the mineral content of the soil in which the feed is grown, type of plant and even the time and maturity of the plant when harvested. Therefore, it is customary to add minerals to commercial horse feeds to correct for regional mineral deficiencies. Although minerals are needed by the horse, they should only be supplemented to correct for specific mineral deficiencies in a diet. Too much mineral supplementation is as detrimental as too little.
Types of Minerals
Minerals are often divided into two categories. The term “macro-mineral” is used to describe minerals that are required in large amounts in the diet. Examples of macro-minerals include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chlorine, and sulfur. The term “micro-mineral” is used to describe minerals that are required in small amounts in the diet. This does not make these minerals any less important, they are just required in smaller amounts. Examples of micro-minerals include cobalt, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc.
Why Calcium Supplements for Horses are Important
As we stated earlier, calcium is incredibly important to the bone and teeth health of your house. In fact, bones typically contain a whopping 35% calcium. Thus calcium serves a huge role in the structural integrity of the skeleton. Calcium also plays a critical role in muscle contraction, blood clotting and enzyme regulation. As calcium is involved in so many bodily functions, the level of calcium in the blood is tightly regulated.
Calcium moves into and out of the blood by being absorbed from the digestive tract, eliminated in the urine or faeces and mobilized from or stored in the skeleton. One of the most commonly fed sources of calcium in the diet is Lucerne. The concentration of calcium in Lucerne is quite high, generally greater than 1% calcium and is highly digestible to the horse.
Calcium supplements for horses, such as our HYGAIN REGAIN product, can help provide these and other minerals that your horse may not have a natural source of. It can be crucial to avoiding muscle weakness and tying up in your horse.
Calcium deficiency and requirements
Mature horses that do not get enough calcium in the diet will have a weakened skeleton and are susceptible to lameness. A mature, 500 kg horse that is not working, pregnant or lactating requires approximately 20 grams of calcium.
The requirements for calcium increase for exercising horses, pregnant mares and lactating mares. The highest daily calcium requirement is for lactating mares immediately after birth of their foal. A 500 kg lactating mare requires approximately 85 grams of calcium. Young, growing horses that do not get enough calcium will suffer from bone anomalies and ailments that may derail the future performance potential of the horse. A young, growing horse with an expected mature weight of 500 kg will require between 36 to 40 grams of calcium.
The Calcium/Phosphorus Ratio
Phosphorus is also an extremely important mineral and component when considering calcium supplement for horses. We need to make sure the two minerals have a proper ratio that is balanced in their diet and any supplements they are taking.
Before we worry about having the correct ratio of calcium to phosphorus, we first need to assure that the absolute requirement for calcium and phosphorus is satisfied. Once the requirement for both minerals is satisfied, we can consider the ratio.
Increased amounts of total phosphorus in the diet compared to calcium, interferes with the absorption of calcium and results in severe bone problems, such as Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism (NSH). This disease results in calcium mobilized from the bone and is characterized by lameness and enlargement of the upper and lower jaw as the calcium in the jaw is replaced by fibrous connective tissue.
A maximum ratio of 6 parts calcium to 1 part phosphorus has been feed to young, growing horses without growth problems. However, a ratio of 2 parts calcium to 1 part phosphorus is considered the ideal dietary ratio. Ironically, this is the same concentration of calcium to phosphorus found in bones.
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